woman eating a healthy snack on the couch during pregnancy

Lifestyle and Diet for Fertility & Pregnancy

June 19, 2015

Planning for a baby? Whether you're trying to conceive your first baby or planning to expand your family, taking a look at your nutrition and lifestyle is one of the most important first steps you can take. With one in six couples struggling with sub-fertility, this is one way in which you can improve your chances of conception as well as ensuring your body’s in the best condition in order to carry a healthy pregnancy. Get your body off to a healthy start with these lifestyle and diet tips for fertility and pregnancy.

Things to Consider when Trying for a Baby

While we often associate antenatal care with trips to the GP or hospital once baby is on the way, doctors encourage women to attend for a pre-conceptual check-up that may highlight any issues relating to your own particular situation as well as being well positioned to offer general health advice on where to start on the route to parenthood.

Medical Conditions

Women with pre-existing medical conditions such as thyroid problems, epilepsy, depression and diabetes are likely to be aware of the importance of medical advice around the time of contraception and pregnancy. Some of the medications required for these conditions can be harmful to the developing foetus and some of the conditions themselves may impact fertility if care is not optimised.

Getting Pregnant After Hormonal Contraception

For some women it may take time for their cycle to regulate after ceasing hormonal contraception - this is normal. However, fertility can also return immediately so it's important to only stop once ready, unless planning to use barrier contraception in the interim.

Fertility Check Up

Women do not routinely need any blood tests before conception. However, it is advised that if a couple are trying to conceive for more than a year or more than 6 months over the age of 35, it may be worth having a medical check up to assess fertility. Remember both partners have a role to play and a male factor is present in at least 50% of couples with sub-fertility.

Lifestyle and Diet Tips for Fertility & Pregnancy

If you are trying for a baby, give yourself the best possible chance by looking after your body. Here are some lifestyle and diet tips for fertility and pregnancy that may help.

Boost your fertility by having a healthy diet

Maintaining a healthy weight going into a pregnancy is important for the health of both mother and baby. Being overweight can impact your fertility and pregnancy. Overweight and obese women are at a greater risk of pregnancy complications including development of gestational diabetes and high blood pressure as well as having higher Caesarean section rates and delivery complications. 


The magic number for pregnancy and weight seems to be a BMI (body mass index) of 20 – 24. Below this there is a risk of irregular or absent ovulation.

Weight Loss

For women who struggle with being overweight, research indicates that a weight loss of as little as 5%-10% of current weight can dramatically improve ovulation and pregnancy rates.


Another lifestyle tip for fertility and pregnancy that pops up regularly is to exercise. Exercise, at a rate of at least 30 minutes a day plays a vital role in helping maintain a healthy weight and has been shown to improve fertility. Only elite athletes and those whose training is maintaining a BMI below 20 may need to consider the impact of this on their body’s preparedness for pregnancy.

Good pre-pregnancy foods

  • A diet rich in high quality carbohydrates (wholegrain bread, rice and pasta) and fibre, fresh fruit and vegetables and plant proteins such as beans, nuts and seeds has been shown in research to result in greater fertility.
  • At least one portion a day of whole fat yogurt, cheese or milk (or even ice cream) has surprisingly been shown to improve ovulation and fertility compared with low fat versions. This is best advised as a temporary switch of habit!
  • Folic acid should be commenced ideally 3 months prior to conception and continued until at least 14th week of pregnancy. 
  • In general a processed, fast food diet, high in sugary, and white starch carbohydrates will tend to increase weight, diabetes risk and sub-fertility.
  • Trans-fats, found in margarines and deep fried foods have been shown to reduce ovulation at a relatively low intake of 4 grams/day.

Breastfeeding & Shorter Gap Between Pregnancies

Those who have had narrowly spaced pregnancies or have been breastfeeding may want to pay particular attention to their weight and diet to ensure that the are taking in adequate supplies of essential nutrients such as iron, folic acid, calcium, omega 3 fatty acids and which can easily be depleted with the demands that this time puts on the body.

Male Fertility

Maintaining a healthy weight, stopping smoking and reducing your alcohol intake have all been shown to improve male fertility. There is much research into the use of various antioxidants in relation to improving sperm quality in men with sub-fertility. Studies have shown improvements with use of multivitamin/antioxidant products including zinc, selenium and vitamin E amongst other antioxidants in the production of healthy sperm.

Stopping bad habits 

When it comes to lifestyle tips for fertility and pregnancy, stopping bad habits like smoking is vital. Smoking and alcohol are both harmful to fertility and an unborn baby.


Quitting smoking may seem like the obvious thing to do but up to 18% of Irish women smoke at some stage during pregnancy. And 13% smoke right through the pregnancy - smoking has been proven to increase the risk of preterm delivery and low birth weight babies as well as now being linked with childhood behavioural problems in later years.


As it may take the average couple 6 months to a year to conceive, it may not seem practical to cut out alcohol altogether. However, it's a good time to review your intake. The maximum safe weekly alcohol limit for women is considered to be 11 units - that is just over one bottle of wine per week. Many of us consider that level to be normal social drinking.

If you are considering getting pregnant, cutting back on alcohol can not only improve your chances of conception, but it's desirable for a healthy pregnancy outcome as there is no safe alcohol limit for alcohol when pregnant.

Take Time to Rest & Relax

Finally, relax. While the excitement of planning a pregnancy or the strains of sub-fertility may make this seem impossible, it has been proven that relaxation improves the chance of conception. So whether this is getting out for a walk, a yoga class, reflexology, mindfulness or just a good catch up with friends, taking time in your schedule to let mind and body rest may be the key to success you have been looking for.

Please note, this blog is for informational purposes only and should not replace medical advice.

It’s always best to consult your doctor before taking any new supplements, treatments or remedies if you are pregnant, breastfeeding or on medication.

Are you looking for more pregnancy advice? Read our blog 'Skincare Needs In Pregnancy'.

Checked and updated: 11 August 2021